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WWM

 

Linguistic Theories
Whole Word Morphology

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Introduction {short description of image} Online Texts {short description of image} Links {short description of image} Bibliography

Introduction:

The theory of WWM was first suggested in Ford and Singh 1983. A series of papers dealing with various aspects of it was published by Ford and Singh between 1983 and 1990. Drawing on these papers, they published a full outline of it in 1991 and an even fuller defense of it in 1997 (with Martohardjono). Since then, aspects of it have been taken up in a series of publications by Agnihotri, Dasgupta, Ford, Neuvel, and Singh, and various combinations of these authors ( cf. the bibliography, in which we also list some closely related papers by Baronian and Starosta). Its most recent version, which introduces a couple of minor refinements to the version given in Singh and Ford 2000, appears as follows (in R Singh, 2001, 'Whole Word Morphology and South Asian Linguists', paper for the South Asian Language Analysis Meeting, Universitat Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany (to be presented October 8,2001)):

"The theory is given in (A), (B) and (1) below, taken, with minor modifications, from Singh and Ford 2000. (A) is the preamble and (B) the post-script to (1), which has the brevity it does because we believe that nothing more of substance can really be said about morphology (or, alternatively, what more is said can be shown to be either pedagogical, as (A) and (B) in fact are, or indefensible (cf. Singh: 2000)).

(A). All that needs to be said about word structure in any language (of any type whatsoever) can and must be said by instantiations of the schema in (1) below. We refer to these instantiations as W(ord) F(ormation) S(trategies) because as generalizations drawn from known particular facts, they can be activated in the production and understanding of new words. WFS's must be formulated as generally as possible, but, and this is crucial, only as generally as the facts of the matter permit.

1. /X /a <-- > / X' /b
where:
  • / X / a and / X' / b are words and X and X' are abbreviations of the forms of classes of words belonging to categories a and b (with which specific words belonging to the right category can be unified or on to which they can be mapped).
  • the ' represents (all the ) form-related differences North of automatic phonology between / X / and / X' /
  • a and b are categories that may be represented as feature-bundles
  • the <-- > represents a bidirectional implication ( if X,then X' and if X',then X )
  • the interpretation of / X' / a is a semantic function of / X /b, and vice versa
  • ' can be null iff a =/= b


(B). It should be obvious that 'morphophonology' (or its more fashionable avatara 'lexical phonology') is seen an integral part of morphology (cf. b above) and neither intra-linguistic (inflections vs. derivation, affixation vs. compounding etc.) nor inter-linguistic (flectional, isolating etc.) morphological diversity is seen as affecting (1) in any fundamental way. (1) offers a unified account of what have sometimes been seen as different types of morphologies. The diversity that exists can be read off the system of strategies that instantiate ( ) above, but it does not need to be expressed as a difference in type: a difference in content does not constitute a difference in form ( of rules or strategies ). As a word can be exhaustively parsed into non-overlapping constant and variable subcomponents with respect to a specific WFS, (1) encapsulates our rejection of multipartite analysis of words and denies any theoretical status to labels such as 'morpheme' 'root' 'stem', and 'suffix'. The constant is always specified by/in the WFS and has no autonomous status outside the WFS in which it figures. Sometimes some of the variable sub-component needs to be specified on both sides of the arrow, but being specified on both sides is precisely what distinguishes it from the constant subcomponent, which, for obvious reasons, is specified on only one side. As all morphological relationships can be expressed by strategies instantiating ( 1 ) , morphology has little or no architecture and, to change the metaphor, no traffic rules ( such as krt (level 1 affixes) before taddhita (level 2 affixes)).

Representations of the speaker's knowledge of the patterns of morphological relatedness in her language, Word Formation Strategies (= instantiations of (1) ) are invoked only in moments of crisis, i.e., when the speaker needs to analyze or fashion a word she needs for the purpose at hand, often to meet a syntactically enforced requirement. Their exploitation, of course, helps her to bridge the gap between the actual words she happens to know and the possible words she can be said to know-actually their existence makes the known merely a subset of the knowable. . When they ARE invoked to produce what will become words, their "outputs" are seamless wholes, with no brackets, boundaries, or a-cyclic graph fragments in them. They are not there to be deleted; they are just not there. WFS's cannot supply these things because they do not have them. And neither the strategies nor their "outputs" have any syntactic constituency relationships marked in them in any fashion whatsoever. In both the active and the passive mode, they license the words a speaker has or may come up with (in the "on line" mode).
 

 



Introduction {short description of image} Online Texts {short description of image} Links {short description of image} Bibliography


Online Texts:


Singh R.
and A. Ford. (2000). In Praise of Sakatyayan : Some Remarks on Whole Word Morphology. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics-2000. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Neuvel S.
and R. Singh (in press) Vive la difference! What Morphology is About. Folia Linguistica: 35,3-4.

Neuvel S.
Starosta,
S. (to appear) A seamless analysis of Micronesian noun incorporation. In Rajendra Singh and Stanley Starosta (eds), Explorations in Seamless Morphology. New Delhi, London, and Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Starosta,
S. (to appear) Do compounds have internal structure? A seamless analysis. In Rajendra Singh and Stanley Starosta, Explorations In Seamless Morphology. New Delhi, London, and Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Starosta,
S., Koenraad Kuiper, Siew-ai Ng, and Zhi-qian Wu. (1998). On defining the Chinese compound word: headedness in Chinese compounding and Chinese VR compounds. In Jerome L. Packard (ed), New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, pp. 347-370.

   
 

 



Introduction {short description of image} Online Texts {short description of image} Links {short description of image} Bibliography


Links:

{short description of image}Université de Montréal Linguistics Department

{short description of image}University of Chicago Linguistics Department

{short description of image}University of Hawaii at Manoa Linguistics Department

{short description of image}Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics


Introduction {short description of image} Online Texts {short description of image} Links {short description of image} Bibliography


New!
Buy Books on Whole Word Morphology.

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{short description of image} Pace Panini : Towards a Word-Based Theory of Morphology
by A. Ford, R. Singh, G. Martohardjono

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{short description of image} Trubetzkoy's Orphan : Proceedings of the Montreal Roundtable 'Morphonology: Contemporary Responses',


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References:
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New! Buy Books on Whole Word Morphology. {short description of image}
  {short description of image}
{short description of image}Whole Word Morphology

Dasgupta, P., A. Ford, and R.Singh. (2001), After Etymology : Towards a Substantivist Linguistics. Berlin : Lincom.
Ford, A. and Rajendra Singh (1996) Quelques avantages d'une linguistique débarrassée de la morpho(pho)nologie, R. Singh ed., Trubetzkoy's Orphan. Proceedings of the Montreal Roundtable on Morphonology: contemporary responses, Amsterdam : Benjamins. 119-139
Ford, A. and R. Singh (1991). Propédeutique Morphologique. Folia Linguistica. 25 (3-4). 549-575.
Ford, A., and R. Singh (1984). Remarks on the directionality of word-formation processes. In: G. Alvarez et al. (eds), ESCOL 1984. Columbus: Ohio State University. 205-213.
Ford, A., and R. Singh (1983). Remarques sur la directionnalité des processus de formation de mot. Revue de l'Association Québécoise de Linguistique, 3, pp.41-50.
Ford, A., and Singh, R. (1983). On the status of morphophonology. In: J. Richardson et al. (eds.), CLS 13: The Interplay of Phonology, Morphology and Syntax. Chicago: University of Chicago. 63-78.
Ford, A., Singh, R. and G. Martohardjono. (1997). Pace Panini: Towards Word-Based Theory of Morphology. New York: Peter Lang.
Neuvel, S. (in press) Whole Word Morphologizer. Expanding the Word-Based Lexicon: A non-stochastic computational Approach. Brain and Language.
Neuvel, S. (2001) Pattern Analogy vs. Word Internal Syntactic Structure in West-Greenlandic. Geert Booij and Jaap van Marle (eds.), Yearbook of Morphology . Dordrecht: Kluwer 253-278.
Neuvel, S. (2000) Second Degree Morphology: A Challenge to the One Variable Constraint, In R. Singh ed., Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000, Thousand Oaks: Sage. 293-301
Neuvel, S. and R. Singh (in press) Vive la difference! What Morphology is About. Folia Linguistica: 35,3-4.
Rainer, F. (1993). Spanische Wortbildungslehre. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Singh, R. (in press). Constraints, Preferences, and Context-sensitivity in Morphology. In K. Dziubalska, ed. Constraints and Preferences, Berlin :Mouton.
Singh, R. (in press). A Note on the Morphology of Indian English. Indian Linguistics.Fall 2001.
Singh, R. (2001). Morphological Diversity and Morphological Borrowing in South Asia. In P.Bhaskararao and K.V.Subbarao,guest-editors, The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics-2001. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Pp.305-320.
Singh, R. (2000). Morphology and Your Miranda Rights. Lecture. The Hwaii Linguistics Society. August 2000.
Singh, R. (1998). Reflections on Morphology and the Lexicon. In B.Vijayanarayan and C. Ramarao, eds., Word Formation in Indian Languages. Hyderabad: Centre for Advanced Study in Linguistics, Osmania University. 1-9.
Singh, R. (1996). Explorations in Phonology and Morphology. In S.K. Verma, ed., In Memory of R.N. Srivastava. Delhi: Kalinga. 123-141.
Singh, R. (1996). Natural Phono(morpho)logy: A View from the Outside, in B. Hurch and R. Rhodes, eds. Natural Phonology: The State of the Art. Mouton: Berlin. Pp. 1-38.
Singh, R. (1992). Two Morphological Notes. Revue Québécoise de Linguistique. 21:2. 183-194.
Singh, R. (1991). Vers une théorie intégrée de la Phonologie et de la Morphologie. Revue Québécoise de Linguistique (Numéro spécial : Linguistique au Québec). 20 (2). 73-91.
Singh, R. and P. Dasgupta. (1999). On So-called Compounds. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics-2000. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Singh, R. and A. Ford. (2000). In Praise of Sakatyayan : Some Remarks on Whole Word Morphology. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics-2000. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Singh, R. and A. Ford (1980). Flexion, dérivation et Panini. In: K. Koerner, ed. Amsterdam Studies on the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, vol. 20, pp. 323-332.
Singh, R. and S. Starosta, eds. (in press). Explorations in Seamless Morphology. London : Sage.
Singh, R. and Rama Kant Agnihotri (1997) Hindi morphology: A word-based description. In the series MLBD. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
Starosta, S. (To appear) A seamless analysis of Micronesian noun incorporation. In Rajendra Singh and Stanley Starosta (eds), Explorations in Seamless Morphology. New Delhi, London, and Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Starosta, S. (To appear) Do compounds have internal structure? A seamless analysis. In Rajendra Singh and Stanley Starosta, Explorations In Seamless Morphology. New Delhi, London, and Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Starosta, S. (2001) Gujarati morphological causatives: a Word-and-Paradigm analysis. In Anvita Abbi, R. S. Gupta and Ayesha Kidwai (ed), Linguistic Structure and Language Dynamics in South Asia: Papers from the Proceedings of SALA XVIII Roundtable. 1st ed. MLBD Series in Linguistics - Vol. 15. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Starosta, S. , Koenraad Kuiper, Siew-ai Ng, and Zhi-qian Wu. (1998). On defining the Chinese compound word: headedness in Chinese compounding and Chinese VR compounds. In Jerome L. Packard (ed), New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, pp. 347-370.
Starosta, S. (1997) Gujarati morphological causatives: a Word-and-Paradigm analysis. Paper presented at the panel, 'South Asian Morphology', SALA XVIII: The eighteenth South Asian languages analysis roundtable. Delhi: Jawaharlal Nehru University.
Starosta, S. (1989-1990). Sora Combining Forms and pseudo-compounding. In David Thomas (ed), Proceedings of the Symposium on Austro-Asiatic Languages. Mon-Khmer Studies XVIII-IX.77-105.


Introduction {short description of image} Online Texts {short description of image} Links {short description of image} Bibliography

           
Find out a little more about who I am. Check out my resume online and read abstracts from some of my publications.
Devoted to various linguistic theories, with a focus on word-based morphology and computational linguistics.
Everything you ever wanted to know about "La Belle Province".
Help save children with a simple click. Learn to speak languages from foreign galaxies Various links to some really cool websites.
Links to other sites. Ressources for linguists, etc.
Contact me.  Send your comments about the site or ask me a question.